Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIESAuthor
Location: Virus and Prion ResearchTitle: Genetic variation of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in alpaca (Vicugna pacos)
Submitted to: Gene Reports
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/7/2016
Publication Date: 6/8/2016
Citation: Vermette, M.S., Schleining, J.A., Greenlee, J.J., Smith, J.D. 2016. Genetic variation of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in alpaca (Vicugna pacos). Gene Reports. 4:213–217.
Interpretive Summary: The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (also called prion diseases) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect animals and humans. The agent of prion diseases is a misfolded form of the prion protein that is resistant to breakdown by the host cells. Since all mammals express prion protein on the surface of various cells such as neurons, all mammals are, in theory, capable of replicating prion diseases. One example of a prion disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; also called mad cow disease), has been shown to infect cattle, sheep, exotic undulates, cats, non-human primates, and humans when the new host is exposed to feeds or foods contaminated with the disease agent. Alpacas are used for fiber production in North America and could come into contact with species infected with a prion disease or be housed in a prion contaminated environment. There are no reports of prion disease in alpacas suggesting the possibility that alpacas may be resistant to prion diseases present in North American livestock and wildlife. Susceptibility in other species has been shown to be affected by amino acids in certain locations of the prion protein (PRNP). The purpose of this study was to determine the PRNP amino acid sequence in alpacas and compare to known sequence of other domesticated animals. In the course of this work, the alpaca sequence was shown to be highly similar to that of camels, sheep, cattle, and deer. Variances (polymorphisms) in the prion amino acid sequence unique to alpacas were identified at 10 locations including two amino acid deletions and one insertion. This information could be used by other researchers to perform structural modeling of the prion protein to determine how the PRNP may affect the potential susceptibility of alpacas to prion diseases.
Technical Abstract: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are caused by accumulation of a misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP). The normal cellular isoform of PrP is produced by the prion gene (PRNP) and is highly expressed in the central nervous system. Currently, there is an absence of information regarding the genetic sequence of alpaca PRNP and the potential susceptibility of this species to TSE. The objective of this study was to sequence the open reading frame of the alpaca prion gene and analyze this sequence for variation within the alpaca population and for homology to TSE-susceptible species. We sequenced the open reading frame of the prion gene of 40 alpacas of Huacaya or Suri descent. Length polymorphisms were identified within the sampled population. A subset (15%) of animals contained an additional 24 base pairs within the putative octapeptide repeat region. This polymorphism was independent of breed and sex. The majority (52.5%) of animals were heterozygous, expressing both longer and shorter alleles. Comparison with proven TSE-susceptible species (sheep, cattle, deer) revealed polymorphisms at codons I6M, A16V, M17T, G92–, –95G, N111S, R167K, N/T177S, I206V, S225Y, Y228S, Q230G, and L237–. Sequence alignment showed high homology compared to camel (>95%), sheep (>88%), cattle (>87%) and deer (>88%) PRNP sequence. This study demonstrates intraspecies variability within the PRNP open reading frame in alpacas and overall high sequence homology to TSE-susceptible species, providing foundational data for further research on the potential susceptibility of alpacas to TSE.
***> There are no reports of prion disease in alpacas suggesting the possibility that alpacas may be resistant to prion diseases present in North American livestock and wildlife. <***
hmmm, i wonder how many of the alpacas were ever tested for tse prion in the USA???
The alpaca (Vicugna pacos) is a domesticated species of South American camelid, similar and are often confused with llamas...
PRICE OF TSE PRION POKER GOES UP!
NEW TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY TSE PRION DISEASE (MAD CAMEL DISEASE) IN A NEW SPECIES
NEW OUTBREAK OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY TSE PRION DISEASE IN A NEW SPECIES
Subject: Prion Disease in Dromedary Camels, Algeria
Our identification of this prion disease in a geographically widespread livestock species requires urgent enforcement of surveillance and assessment of the potential risks to human and animal health.
2017 USAHA RESOLUTION
RESOLUTION NUMBER: 1 Combined with 6, 13, 16, and 22 APPROVED
SOURCE: COMMITTEE ON ANIMAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT
COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AND EMERGING DISEASES
COMMITTEE ON SWINE
COMMITTEE ON CATTLE AND BISON
COMMITTEE ON SHEEP, GOATS AND CAMELIDS
SUBJECT MATTER: Adequate Funding for Prevention, Diagnosis, and Response for Foreign Animal Disease Outbreaks
*** APHIS USDA CFIA CWD TSE Prion Herd Certifications Update ***
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Terry S. Singeltary Sr., Bacliff, Texas USA 77518 email@example.com Attachments (1) Docket No. APHIS-2018-0011 Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program Standards Singeltary View Attachment:View as format pdf
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PLEASE WATCH THIS VIDEO, AND BE SURE TO SEE AROUND THE 8 MINUTE MARK, VERY, VERY, DISTURBING...terry
LISTEN TO THIS CWD BLUES DIDDY ABOUT WISCONSIN CWD TSE PRION...terry
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Terry S. Singeltary Sr.